Basic about Muhammad Ali Jinnah
|Birth||25th December, 1876|
|Death||11 September 1948|
|Cause of Death||Tuberculosis|
|Early education||Madrasa-Tul-Islam Sindh|
Christian missionary school
|Higher education||Lincoln’s Inn from England|
|Interest||Barrister & Politics|
|Status||“First Governor-General of Pakistan”|
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25 December 1876. He remained as a founder and Barrister of Pakistan; he was the leader of “All India Muslim League”. He was the “First Governor-General of Pakistan”. With great respect and honor, Pakistanis called him “Quaid-e-Azam”. The word “Quaid-e-Azam” is a word of Urdu language which means “the great leader”. People of Pakistan also called him “Baba-e-Qaum” in the Urdu language and in the English “Nation’s father”. National vacation is celebrated on his birthday.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in “Karachi” on 25th December 1876, father name was “Poonjah Jinnah (1857-1901)” and mother name “Mithibai”. His parents had seven children and Quaid-e-Azam was the elder from all. His father came from India “Gujarat” to “Sindh”. His name was “Mahmoodali Jinnah Bhai” later change to “Muhammad Ali Jinnah or M.A”. He and his family communicated into the “Gujarati” language and children were speaking in “Kutchi” and “English”.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah got studies from “Sindh Madrasa-Tul-Islam”. Later went to his aunt to get admission to “Christian missionary school”.
Quaid went to London for higher education and got admission to “Lincoln’s Inn university”. Jinnah was appreciated by the political leaders “Dadabhai Naroji and Sir Pherozeshah Metha” which were Indian leaders. They thought that India should have its constitutional government. During his studies, his mother died and came back to India, left the studies.
Working as the politician and lawyer:
During the age of 20 years, he joined the high court and became the “first younger lawyer” at the bar. He had an interest in political affairs and was famous within three years. An offer came to the Quad-e-Azam of 1500Rs from the “Bombay high court”, after six months of work in the bar. The 1500Rs were a huge amount at that time and he refuses to take it. He wanted to earn more than 1500Rs per day. At last, he proved after a lot of effort.
At that time, Poonjah Jinnah lost his business and Muhammad Ali Jinnah came in great difficulty. During the difficulties and problems, practicing as a lawyer in Mumbai. In “Malabar”, build a house after his death named “Jinnah house”. Muhammad Ali Jinnah became a successful lawyer in 1908. He became the leader of the “Indian National Congress”. He worked for the “Hindu Muslim Unity”, Hindus and for the Muslims. He wanted that Hindu and Muslim lived in one country with a livelihood.
Allama Iqbal wrote a letter to the Quaid-e-Azam that Muslims and Hindus cannot be live in one place or the same country. At last, he moved to the Muslim League (1916). Then, he worked only for the Muslims of Sub-continent, became “President of the Muslim League”. Quaid-e-Azam signed an agreement to the Congress that they had to show the Britishers that he supports Congress and the Muslim League.
Jinnah did 2nd marriage to the “Rattanbai Petit”. Jinnah was 24 years elder than her wife. Many people were against them because they had different religions. They traveled both to Europe and India. ALLAH blessed them with a daughter, named “Dina” in the year 1919.
Gandhi’s full name “Mohandas Gandhi” became the leader of Congress, in 1918. He struggles for the self-government, but Muhammad Ali Jinnah was not like that. He wanted that Muslims and Hindus live with each other. Gandhi started a movement, named “Khilafat movement”. Muhammad Ali Jinnah supported him for the movement. But, gradually there many differences came. Soon, he left support and worked hard for the Muslims of India. Muhammad Ali Jinnah had 14 points of actions and then these points came to be known as the “Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.”
Quaid-e-Azam had been seriously ill due to his personal life. He divorced his wife in 1927 and focus on politics. His sister supported him a lot, she was very close to him. He was in England during that time.
Many Muslim leaders want Jinnah to come back to India for the Muslim League like “Agha Khan III, Choudhary Rehmat Ali and Allama Muhammad Iqbal”. They wanted that Quaid-e-Azam took the command of the Muslim League. At last, Jinnah came back to the country. He organized the Muslim League and left London in 1934. The elections were held in 1937 and the Muslim League got a few seats. During that era, “Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan” helped the Muslim League, a powerful man. Sikandar joined the Muslim League in 1937 and after that, it is known to as “Jinnah-Sikandar Pact.”
Congress & Muslim League Differences:
Congress and the Muslim League both have different. Allama Iqbal and other leaders of the Muslim League wanted that Muslims should have their own earth for doing prayer. Because the Hindus and the Muslims both have different aspects of life and both have different religions. At last, the Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League worked for the Muslims for a separate country. Muslim League made a masterplan to in 1940 called “Pakistan Resolution”. They named the country “Pakistan.”
The “Dawn” newspaper was founded by the Jinnah in 1941. In this newspaper, he gave the ideas and thinking of the Muslim League. Jinnah left the Congress, Jinnah was against the Congress Movement. Jinnah and Gandhi had a fourteen-table round conference which got nothing any result. During that time, the Muslim League had been formed government in many provinces and the “central government.”
The Britishers had been started to help that India into two countries, one for the Muslims and others for the Hindus, after “World War II”. Congress accepted the plan on 16 May 1946. Jinnah’s leadership and the Muslim League took good news for the Muslims. Jinnah’s speech on 16th August 1946 for the independence of Pakistan in which the Muslim will remain separate after the “British Raj”. The British Raj was separated in 1947 and the two countries came into being, India and Pakistan.
Governor of Pakistan:
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first “Governor-General of Pakistan” till his last moment of life. His sister became the “Mother of the Nation”. While addressing the assembly, 11 August 1947, he told about Pakistan’s future. He said:
“You may belong to any religion caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state. In due course of time, Hindus will cease to be Hindus and Muslims will cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state.”
Thus, Pakistan came into existence on “14th August 1947″. After the Pakistan came into being, he stated that:
“We have undoubtedly achieved Pakistan, and that too without bloody war, practically peacefully, by moral and intellectual force, and with the power of the pen, which is no less mighty than that of the sword and so our righteous cause has triumphed. Are we now going to besmear and tarnish this greatest achievement for which there is no parallel in the history of the world? Pakistan is now a fait accompli and it can never be undone; besides, it was the only just, honorable, and practical solution of the most complex constitutional problem of this great subcontinent. Let us now plan to build and reconstruct and regenerate our great nation…”
After Pakistan came into being, there are many issues and problems created among the Muslims and the Hindus. These problems were so serious in Punjab and Bengal. This issue millions of the death of both religions which made the Quaid-e-Azam sad.
The Kashmir conflict came after Pakistan came into being. Kashmiri King wanted to join this area to India but, the Muslims of Kashmir did not want. Thus, India sent troops and soldiers in Kashmir. India raises this issue in the United States. The United Nations did not solve and said this conflict could go to the end. And from that day to this day, the Kashmir issue could not be solved.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah had been suffered from “tuberculosis” from 1940. His sister and some other family member knew about Quaid’s illness. After becoming the Governor-General, his work increasing day by day. During his illness, Quaid spent a few months in a rest house in “Ziarat”. He could not live more and die on 11th September 1948.
Jinnah gave a message to us in his speech;
“My message to you all is of hope, courage, and confidence.”
Quotes of the Quaid-e-Azam remember us that, he was kind-hearted and had a big heart for the Muslims.
“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a subcontinent of nationalities.”
“I do not believe in taking the right decision, I take a decision and make it right.”
“Democracy is in the blood of the Muslims, who look upon complete equality of mankind, and believe in fraternity, equality, and liberty.”
1. Wikipedia, 14th July 2020.
2. essaywritingservice, 14th July 2020.
3. parc, 14th July 2020.